Front and side impact tests use dummies modelled on average-sized 18-month- and three-year-old children. They are placed in the rear of the car in a type of child restraint recommended by the car manufacturer.
The movement of the dummies is measured during the impacts, with Euro NCAP assessing whether they hit any of the car's interior and the level of the forces transmitted through them.
What Euro NCAP looks for
Euro NCAP has put a particular emphasis on the improved design and ease of fitting of ISOFIX mounts and child restraints.
However, it also measures the level of seat cushion compression and rebound, because if this is excessive, it can cause an ISOFIX seat to rotate, causing injury.
Test results are rated from one to four stars, with four stars being the highest possible result.